Lyme Neuroborreliosis in a Patient with Breast Cancer: MRI and PET/CT Findings.

We present a case demonstrating the performance of different radiographical and nuclear medicine imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of a patient with Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient presented in late summer 2019 with radicular pains followed by a foot drop and peripheral facial palsy, both right-sided. Due to a history of breast cancer, disseminated malignant disease was initially suspected. Bone metastasis was ruled out by skeletal scintigraphy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neuroaxis and a whole body 18F-FDG PET-CT was performed within 48 hours. The MRI revealed a strong contrast enhancement of the conus medullaris and fibers of the cauda equina, while the 18F-FDG PET/CT was without pathological findings. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid led to the definitive diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis with monocytic pleocytosis and a positive intrathecal test for Borrelia burgdorferi. The patient became pain-free after 10 days of ceftriaxone, and the paralysis slowly regressed the following month. This case highlights the difficulty of the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis and discusses the relevant imaging findings.

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