Multidisciplinary Management of Suspected Lyme Borreliosis: Clinical Features of 569 Patients, and Factors Associated with Recovery at 3 and 12 Months, a Prospective Cohort Study

Abstract

Introduction. Because patients with a suspicion of Lyme borreliosis (LB) may have experienced difficult care paths, the Tick-Borne Diseases Reference Center (TBD-RC) was started in 2017. The aim of our study was to compare the clinical features of patients according to their final diagnoses, and to determine the factors associated with recovery in the context of multidisciplinary management for suspected LB.

Methods. We included all adult patients who were seen at the TBD-RC (2017–2020). Four groups were defined: (i) confirmed LB, (ii) possible LB, (iii) Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS) or sequelae, and (iv) other diagnoses. Their clinical evolution at 3, 6, and 9–12 months after care was compared. Factors associated with recovery at 3 and at 9–12 months were identified using logistic regression models.

Results. Among the 569 patients who consulted, 72 (12.6%) had confirmed LB, 43 (7.6%) possible LB, 58 (10.2%) PTLDS/sequelae, and 396 (69.2%) another diagnosis. A favorable evolution was observed in 389/569 (68.4%) at three months and in 459/569 (80.7%) at 12 months, independent of the final diagnosis. A longer delay between the first symptoms and the first consultation at the TBD-RC (p = 0.001), the multiplicity of the diagnoses (p = 0.004), and the inappropriate prescription of long-term antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023) were negatively associated with recovery, reflecting serial misdiagnoses.

Conclusions. A multidisciplinary team dedicated to suspicion of LB may achieve a more precise diagnosis and better patient-centered medical support in the adapted clinical sector with a shorter delay, enabling clinical improvement and avoiding inappropriate antimicrobial prescription.

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