Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Present and Future

Judith Miklossy*, Samuel Donta, Kurt Mueller, Oliver Nolte and George Perry

Alzheimer Research Center, Prevention Alzheimer International Foundation, 1921 Martigny-Croix, CP 16, Switzerland

This special issue gives a framework of an international effort, to critically and constructively overview the clinical and pathological aspects of Lyme neuroborreliosis and show directions for future practice and research.
The issue in the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis is assessed followed by a comprehensive analysis of the involvement of connective tissue and associated clini-cal manifestations. A critical review shows that both the meningovascular and meningoencephalitic forms, which define chronic or late neurosyphilis also occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Clinical and pathological confirmation of these tertiary forms and detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in association with tertiary brain lesions were reported by many authors. These observations indicate that similarly to Tre-ponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdorferi infection is directly involved in the late or chronic manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

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